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APA Citation Style Sheet
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Consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.) for special situations.
In-Text Parenthetical References
You must give credit in the text to paraphrases of words and ideas as well as to exact quotations.

Three ways to cite sources in the text:
  • Statements followed by the cite in parentheses.
    (Exact Quote)
    "...mothers who are overly strict and harshly punitive... who strongly
    show their anger or disappointment with their children, are likely to impede their
    children's prosocial development" (Hastings et al., 2000, p. 543).
    (Exact Quote -- Electronic Source - No page numbers given. Give section and paragraph.)
    "...mothers who are extremely strict ...may impede their children's prosocial
    development (Hastings et al., 2000, Conclusion section, para.4).

    (Paraphrase)
    Extremely critical mothers might warp children's social development
    (Hastings et al., 2000).
    [Note: This is not a good paraphrase. It changes just a few words.]

  • Sentence includes the author(s) with the year in parentheses.
    Hastings et al. (2000) found that overly strict mothers...
  • Sentence includes the author(s) and the year.
    A 2000 study by Hastings et al. determined that...

Note: For in-text cites, for three, four, or five authors, list all names followed by commas the first time cited and only first author followed by et al. and date for subsequent cites; for six or more authors, use the abbreviation, et al., for all cites.

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Cited References Format
The reference list at the end of a paper provides the information needed to locate and retrieve the source documents cited in the paper.

General notes:

  • Include only sources that were used in the preparation of the paper.
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by last name of author.
  • Use a hanging indent: the first line is at the left margin; subsequent lines are indented five spaces.
  • Double space all entries.
  • Double space also between entries.
  • Space once after all punctuation.
  • Use only the initials of the authors' first and middle names.
  • Include the names of all authors, no matter how many.
  • List all authors in reverse order: last name, first and middle initials.
  • If two or more authors are listed, use an amperstand (&) in front of the last author.
  • Use commas after authors' names and before the ampersand.
  • If no author is given, start with the title and then the date. Incorporate these into the list in proper alphabetical order, ignoring initial articles.
  • Capitalize only the first words of book or article titles; capitalize all important words in the name of a journal.
  • Italicize or underscore the names of books and periodicals.

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Note: These examples are single-spaced to save space. In a paper, entries are double-spaced.

Book
Author, X. X., Author, Y. Y.,Jr., & Author, Z. Z. (Year). Title: Capitalize
only the first word of the title and also of the subtitle and proper names, and
italicize or underscore the entire title including the period. (If the book
is a 2nd or subsequent edition, put the edition in parentheses after the title
and before the period). City of publication and state if not well-known city:
Publisher.

Stilwell, B. M., Galvin, M. R., & Kopta, S. M. (2000). Right vs. wrong:
       Raising a child with a conscience (2nd ed). Bloomington: Indiana
       University Press.


Edited Book
Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Eds.). (Year). Title as for authored book,
italicized or underscored. City: Publisher.

Sprinthall, N. A., & Mosher, R. L. (Eds.). (1978). Value development as
       the aim of education. Schenectady, N. Y.: Character Research Press.


Chapter in a Book
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter, only initial word capitalized, no underscore
quotation marks, or italic. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book, italics or
underscore (pp. xxx-xxx). City: Publisher.

Kalish, C. W. (2000). Children's thinking about truth: a parallel to
       social domain judgments? In M. Laupta (Ed.), Rights and wrongs:
       How children and young adults evaluate the world (pp.6-22). San
       Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

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Journal Article - Continuous Pagination
Author, A. B., & Author, C. D. (Year). Title of article, capitalizing only the first word
of title, and first word of subtitle, and proper nouns; no quotation marks,
underscore, or italics. Name of the Periodical, Underscored or Italics, and
All Important Words Capitalized, volume number, only the number, also
underscored, inclusive pages.

Walker, L. J., Hennig, K. H., & Krettenauer, T. (2000) Parent and peer
       contexts for children's moral reasoning development. Child
       Development, 71, 1033-1048.


Journal Article - Repaginated Issues
Same as Continuous Pagination, except after volume number, (issue number in
parentheses), inclusive pages.

Denton, J. (1997). Character and moral development. Namta Journal,
       22(2), 111-116.


Electronic Journal Article -- from Online Database (available also in print)

Note: Inserting [Electronic version] immediately following the article title should indicate an exact online equivalent
to a print version (i.e. a PDF file). If there is no pagination (i.e., an HTML page), omit page numbers.


Author, A.B., & Author, C.D. (Date). Title of article, capitalizing only the first word of
title, and first word of subtitle, and proper nouns; no quotation marks, or
italics. Name of the Periodical, Underscored or Italics, and All Important
Words Capitalized, volume number, only the number, also underscored or
italicized, inclusive pages. Retrieval statement including date and database.

Walker, L.J., Hennig, K.H., & Krettenauer, T. (2000). Parent and peer
       contexts for children's moral reasoning development. Child
       Development, 71, 1033-1048. Retrieved October 25, 2001, from
       Expanded Academic ASAP (Academic OneFile) database.


Article -- Not from Database -- Available Only On-line
Author. (Date if available). Title, capitalize only the first word of title, and first word of subtitle, and proper nouns or
adjectives; no quotation marks, underscore, or italics. Title of journal in italics, volume, article number or page
numbers if given. Retrieval statement including date retrieved, and the URL for the document itself; point directly
to the document, do not close the URL with a period. If you must put a site on two lines, break before a slash or dot.

Berkowitz, M.W., & Grych, J.H. (1998) Fostering goodness: Teaching parents to facilitate children's moral
       development. Sit Up Straight: The Journal of Moral Inculcation, 7, Article 09b. Retrieved March 23, 2004
       from http://tigger.uic.edu /~lnucci/MoralEd/aotm/Berko.htm


Websites (Nonperiodical Documents on the Internet)
Author and/or source if given. (Date if given). Title in italics. Retrieval statement including date retrieved, department
or program if from a large and complex website such as a university or government agency, report number if applicable,
and the URL for the document itself; point directly to the document, do not close the URL with a period. If you must put
a site on two lines, break before a slash or dot.

University of Illinois at Chicago. Technology in Higher Education. Retrieved October 25, 2001, from University of Illinois
       at Chicago, College of Education, Office for Studies in Technological Progress and Educational Applications Web site:
       http://eeyore.umd.edu/~lnucci/Tech/aotm/highered.htm

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ERIC Document
Author, last name first, followed by initials. (Date in parentheses). Title underscored or
italicized: Only first word of title and subtitle and proper nouns and adjectives
capitalized
(Report number in parentheses if there is a report number; this is
not the ERIC number). City, State postal abbrev. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
No. ED xxx xxx in parentheses) If obtained electronically, add retrieval statement.

McCrary, J. H. (1999). Children's heroes and heroines: Developing values
       manifested through artwork. Paper presented at the annual meeting
       of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Point Clear,
       AL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 437 390) Retrieved
       October 25, 2002, from EDRS E-subscribe database.

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Abstract - Same as full source but add the word [Abstract] in brackets after title.

Abstract for dissertation:
         
Author, last name first, followed by initials. (Date in parentheses). Title,
capitalizing only the first word of title, and first word of subtitle, and
proper nouns; no quotation marks, underscore, or italics [Abstract].
Name of source underscored or italicized. If electronic, give retrieval
statement, Abstract obtained from.....

Fuqua, B.H. (1999). Young children's decisions about naughtiness and
       punishment in constructivist classrooms [Abstract]. Abstract obtained
       from Proquest: Dissertation Abstracts International, UMI No. 9920203.

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Video
Names of primary contributors if given (Function in parentheses). (Date in
parentheses). Title underscored or italicized: Only the first word and
proper nouns and adjectives capitalized [Type of material in brackets].
(Available from distributor's name and address in parentheses)

Krigbaum, M. (Producer), & Cox, R.A. (Director). (1977). Morality:
       The process of moral development [Vidocassette]. (Available
       from Davidson Films, 668 Marsh Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401)

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Mental Measurements Yearbook

Last name, first initial of review author. (Year of MMY publication). [Review of the name of test.] In name(s) of MMY editors,
The [edition] mental measurements yearbook (pp. xxx-xxx). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.


Sandoval, J. (2003). [Review of the Woodcock-Johnson III]. In B. S. Plake,
       J. C. Impara, & R. A. Spies (Eds.), The fifteenth mental measurements
       yearbook (pp. 1024-1028). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements

*Dates of Mental Meaurements Yearbooks: 9th-1985; 10th-1989; 11th-1992; 12th-1995; 13th-1998; 14th-2001. 15th-2003

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