Loyola Notre Dame Library
 
MLA Citation Style Sheet
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Consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.) for special situations.

In-Text Parenthetical References
Give credit in the text to exact quotations as well as paraphrases of information and ideas.
Three ways to cite in the text:

1. Statements followed by cite in parentheses.

  • (Paraphrase) There has been a great disagreement between physicists and musicians about music (Taylor 37).
  • (Exact Quote)"Music has come a long way since […] But it will never supplant the sounds of traditional instruments" (Taylor 37).
2. Include the author(s) in the statement with the year in parentheses.
  • According to Taylor (1991) physicists and musicians now have a more amicable relationship (39).

3. Include the author(s) and the year in statements.

  • In a 1991 article, Taylor blamed physicists for the … (36).

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Works Cited Format
The reference list at the end of the paper provides the information needed to locate and retrieve the source documents cited in the paper.

General notes:
  • Head this section Works Cited and center the heading
  • Include only sources cited in your paper.
  • Start the first line flush with the left margin and indent subsequent lines five spaces.
  • Double space between and within entries.
  • Space once after all punctuation.
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by last name of author.
  • Use full names of authors as stated in the original publication.
  • List the first author in reverse order (last name first) and all other authors in standard order (first name, last name).
  • If there are two or more books by the same author, give the full name in the first entry and type three hyphens followed by a period for subsequent entries.
  • If there are three or more authors, either name only the first author followed by et al. or give all names in full.
  • If no author is given, incorporate the citation in the list alphabetically by title.
  • Capitalize all important words in the titles.

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Note: These examples are single-spaced to save space. In a paper, entries are double-spaced.

Book
Author, First, and Second Author. Title of Book: Underscored with All Important Words
Capitalized. Edition abbreviated if appropriate. City of Publication, State
if not well-known city: Publisher, Date.

Fletcher, Neville, H., and Thomas D. Rossing. The Physics of Musical
     Instruments. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998.


Edited Book
Editor, First, ed. Title of Book: Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized.
Edition abbreviated if appropriate. City of Publication, and state if not well-known city: Publisher, Date.

Schutte, Anne Jacobson, Thomas Kuehn, and Silvana Seidel Menchi, eds. Time, Space,
     and Women's Lives in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO: Truman State
     University Press, 2001.


Chapter in Book
Author(s) of the Chapter. "Title of the Chapter in Quotes with All Important Words
Capitalized." Title of the Book Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized.
Ed. followed by the name of the editor in standard name order. City of
Publication, State if not well-known city: Publisher, Date. Inclusive page numbers
of chapter.

Carterette, Edward C., and Roger A. Kendall. "Human Music Perception." The
     Comparative Psychology of Audition: Perceiving Complex Sounds. Ed.
     Robert J. Dooling and Steward H. Hulse. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
     Erlbaum Associates, 1989. 120-149.


Entry from Literature Criticism Series
Author, First. "Title of Article in Quotes with all Important Words Capitalized". Title
of the Periodical the Work Appeared in First Underscored with All Important
Words Capitalized. Day Month Year: pages. Rpt. in Name of Publication
Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized. Vol. Number. Ed. Name
of Editor in First Last Order. City of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages.

Benedict, Ruth, "The Past and the Future". The Nation 7 December 1946: 656-658.
     Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 97. Ed. Deborah A. Stanley.
     Detroit: Gale, 1997. 300-301.

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Scholarly Journal - Continuous Pagination
Author, First, and Second Author. "Title of the Article in Quotes with All Important
Words Capitalized." Name of Journal Underscored with All Important Words
Capitalized. Volume number (Year in parentheses): pages.

Menou, Kristen, Benjamin Audit, Xavier Boutillon, and Holger Vach. "Holographic
     Study of a Vibrating Bell: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment."
     American Journal of Physics. 66 (1998): 380-86.

OR

Author, First, et al. (If three or more authors.) Rest of publication information as above.

Menou, Kristen, et al. "Holographic Study of a Vibrating Bell: An Undergraduate
     Laboratory Experiment." American Journal of Physics. 66 (1998): 380-86.


Scholarly Journal - Repaginated Issues
Author, First, and Second Author. "Title of the Article in Quotes with All Important Words
Capitalized." Name of Journal Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized
Volume number.Issue number (Year in parentheses): pages.

Steinberg, Lawrence. "The Importance of Serendipity." Marriage & Family Review
     31.3/4 (2001): 31-47.


Magazine Article
Author, First, and Second Author. "Title of the Article in Quotes with All Important
Words Capitalized." Name of the Magazine Underscored with All Important
Words Capitalized Day Month (Abbreviated) Year: pages.

Lipkin, Richard. "To Build a Better Violin: Can Scientists Determine Why
     Some Instruments Sound Great?" Science News 3 Sept. 2002: 22-25.


Full Text Article from an Online Database
Author, First. "Title of Article in Quotes with All Important Words Capitalized." Name
of the Periodical, Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized Volume
Issue number (if given) (Year): pages. Name of Database Underscored. Name of service
provider. The date of access <The URL of the Database Homepage in angle brackets>.

Page, Philip. "Furrowing all the Brows: Interpretation and the Transcendent in
     Toni Morrison's Paradise." African American Review 35 (2001): 637-49.
     Literature Resource Center. Gale Group. 10 May 2002

     <http://infotrac.galegroup.com>.

Full Text Article in an Online Periodical
Author, First. "Title of Article in Quotes with All Important Words Capitalized."
Name of the Periodical Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized volume
number.issue (Year): Range or total number of pages (ex. 11 pp.) or paragraphs
(ex. 46 pars.). Day Month Year of Access <URL>.

Watanabe, Kazuko. "Reading Little Women, Reading Motherhood in Japan." Feminist
     Studies 25 (1999): 8pp. 3 Oct. 2001 <http://www.lib.umd.edu/ETC/ReadingRoom

     /Newsletters/FemStud/>.

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Entry from Online Database - Reprinted Information
Author, First, Last name (if given). "Title of Article in Quotes with All Important Words Capitalized."
Title of Source (if given) Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized. Day Month Year: pages (if given).
Rpt. (if given) in Name of Publication Underscored with All Important Words Capitalized. Vol. Number.
Ed. Name of Editor in First, Last Order. City and State of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages (if given).
Name of Database Underscored. Service Provider. Day Month Year of access. <URL>.

Benedict, Ruth, "The Past and the Future". The Nation 7 December 1946: 656-658.
     Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 97. Ed. Deborah A. Stanley.
     Detroit: Gale, 1997. 300-301. Literature Resource Center. Gale Group.
     25 October 2002. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>.

"Isabel Allende." Contemporary Literary Criticism-Select. In Literature Resource Center.
     Gale Group. 31 March 2005. <http://galenet.galegroup.com>.

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Website
Person who created the site (if known) last name, first name. Name of the Site. Name of
the institution associated with the site, if appropriate. Day Month Year of Access.
<URL>.


Guglielmo Marconi: The "Father of Radio." The Guglielmo Marconi Foundation, U.S.A.,
     Inc. 22 Dec. 2004. <http://www.marconiusa.org/marconi/index.html>.

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Video
Title of the Video Underscored. Director and/or producer in standard word
order with abbreviations Dir. or Prod. Original release date. Medium.
Name of Distributor, Date.

Gone with the Wind. Prod. David O. Selznick. 1939. Videocasette.
     Metro Goldwyn Mayer, 1998.

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