MLA Style Sheet


Consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) for special situations.

In-Text Parenthetical References
Give credit in the text to exact quotations as well as paraphrases of information and ideas.

Common examples of in-text citations:

1. Statements followed by cite in parentheses.

  • (Paraphrase) There has been a great disagreement between physicists and musicians about music (Taylor 37).
  • (Exact Quote)"Music has come a long way since […] But it will never supplant the sounds of traditional instruments" (Taylor 37).
2. Include the author(s) in the statement with the page number in parentheses.
  • According to Taylor, physicists and musicians now have a more amicable relationship (39).

3. Include the author(s) and the year in statements.

  • In a 1991 article, Taylor blamed physicists for the … (36).

4. If you are citing one of two or more works by the same author, identify the work with a shortened version of its title in parentheses along with the page number.

  • Northrop Frye has called King Lear a "comedy of the grotesque" (Anatomy, 237).
Parenthetical references to books of the Bible include the edition (especially if you use more than one edition in your essay), chapter (abbreviated) and verse. The Henry Buhl Library at Grove City College in Pennsylvania has put the list of abbreviations used by MLA online. Take a look: Common abbreviations for books of the bible.
  • John of Patmos echoes this passage when describing his vision (New Jerusalem Bible, Rev. 4.6-8).

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Works Cited Format
The reference list at the end of the paper provides the information needed to locate and retrieve the source documents cited in the paper.

General notes:
  • Head this section Works Cited and center the heading
  • Include only sources cited in your paper.
  • Start the first line flush with the left margin and indent subsequent lines five spaces.
  • Double space between and within entries.
  • Space once after all punctuation.
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order by last name of author.
  • Use full names of authors as stated in the original publication.
  • List the first author in reverse order (last name first) and all other authors in standard order (first name, last name).
  • If there are two or more books by the same author, give the full name in the first entry and type three hyphens followed by a period for subsequent entries.
  • If there are more than three authors, either name only the first author followed by et al. or give all names in full.
  • If no author is given, incorporate the citation in the list alphabetically by title.
  • Capitalize all important words in the titles.

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Note: These examples are single-spaced to save space. In a paper, entries are double-spaced.


Print Books


Book
Author, First, and Second Author. Title of Book: Italicized with All Important Words
Capitalized
. Edition abbreviated if appropriate. City of Publication, State
if not well-known city: Publisher, Date. Source and Medium of Publication.

Fletcher, Neville, H., and Thomas D. Rossing. The Physics of Musical
     Instruments. 2nd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998. Print.

Note Form:
     1Fletcher, Neville, H., and Thomas D. Rossing. The Physics of Musical Instruments. 2nd ed. (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998) 44.


Edited Book
Editor, First, ed. Title of Book: Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized.
Edition abbreviated if appropriate. City of Publication, and state if not well-known city: Publisher, Date. Source and Medium of Publication.

Schutte, Anne Jacobson, Thomas Kuehn, and Silvana Seidel Menchi, eds. Time, Space,
     and Women's Lives in Early Modern Europe. Kirksville, MO: Truman State
     University Press, 2001. Print.

Note Form:
     1Schutte, Anne Jacobson, Thomas Kuehn, and Silvana Seidel Menchi, eds. Time, Space, and Women's Lives in Early Modern Europe. (Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2001).


Chapter in Book
Author(s) of the Chapter. "Title of the Chapter in Quotes with All Important Words
Capitalized." Title of the Book Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized.
Ed. followed by the name of the editor in standard name order. City of
Publication, State if not well-known city: Publisher, Date. Inclusive page numbers
of chapter. Source and Medium of Publication.

Carterette, Edward C., and Roger A. Kendall. "Human Music Perception." The
     Comparative Psychology of Audition: Perceiving Complex Sounds. Ed.
     Robert J. Dooling and Steward H. Hulse. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence
     Erlbaum Associates, 1989. 120-149. Print.

Note Form:
     1Carterette, Edward C., and Roger A. Kendall. "Human Music Perception." The Comparative Psychology of Audition: Perceiving Complex Sounds. Ed. Robert J. Dooling and Steward H. Hulse. (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1989). 120-149.


Entry from Literature Criticism Series
Author, First. "Title of Article in Quotes with all Important Words Capitalized". Title
of the Periodical the Work Appeared in First Italicized with All Important
Words Capitalized. Day Month Year: pages. Rpt. in Name of Publication
Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized. Vol. Number. Ed. Name
of Editor in First Last Order. City of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages. Source and Medium of Publication.

Benedict, Ruth, "The Past and the Future". The Nation 7 December 1946: 656-658.
     Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 97. Ed. Deborah A. Stanley.
     Detroit: Gale, 1997. 300-301. Print.

Note Form:
     1Benedict, Ruth, "The Past and the Future". The Nation 7 December 1946: 656-658. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 97. Ed. Deborah A. Stanley. (Detroit: Gale, 1997). 300-301.

The Bible
Name of the Edition Italicized. Name of Editor, ed. City of Publication, State
if not well-known city: Publisher, Date. Source and Medium of Publication.

The New Jerusalem Bible. Henry Wansbrough, gen. ed. New York: Doubleday, 1985. Print.

Note Form:
     1The New Jerusalem Bible. Henry Wansbrough, gen. ed. (New York: Doubleday, 1985). 67.


Online Books


Author. "Title of article or section in quotes" (if applicable). Title of Book in Italics with All Important Words Capitalized. Name(s) of editor(s) (if applicable). City of Publication: Publisher (if given) or n.p., date of publication (if given) or n.d. Page number(s) (if given) or N. pag. Name of Online Source. Web. Day month year of access.

Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels Into Several Remote Nations of the World. London: George Bell and Sons, 1892. N.
     pag. Project Gutenberg. Web. 3 August 2009.

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Print Journals


Scholarly Journal - Continuous Pagination
Author, First, and Second Author. "Title of the Article in Quotes with All Important
Words Capitalized." Name of Journal Italicized with All Important Words
Capitalized Volume number (Year in parentheses): pages. Source and Medium of Publication.

Menou, Kristen, Benjamin Audit, Xavier Boutillon, and Holger Vach. "Holographic
     Study of a Vibrating Bell: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment."
     American Journal of Physics 66 (1998): 380-86. Print.

OR

Author, First, et al. (If three or more authors.) Rest of publication information as above.

Menou, Kristen, et al. "Holographic Study of a Vibrating Bell: An Undergraduate
     Laboratory Experiment." American Journal of Physics 66 (1998): 380-86.

Note Form:
     1Menou, Kristen, et al. "Holographic Study of a Vibrating Bell: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment," American Journal of Physics 66 (1998): 380-86. Print.


Scholarly Journal - Repaginated Issues
Author, First, and Second Author. "Title of the Article in Quotes with All Important Words
Capitalized." Name of Journal Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized
Volume number.Issue number (Year in parentheses): pages. Source and Medium of Publication.

Steinberg, Lawrence. "The Importance of Serendipity." Marriage & Family Review
     31.4 (2001): 31-47. Print.

Note Form:
     1Steinberg, Lawrence. "The Importance of Serendipity," Marriage & Family Review 31.4 (2001): 31-47.


Magazine Article
Author, First, and Second Author. "Title of the Article in Quotes with All Important
Words Capitalized." Name of the Magazine Italicized with All Important
Words Capitalized Day Month (Abbreviated) Year: pages. Source and Medium of Publication.

Lipkin, Richard. "To Build a Better Violin: Can Scientists Determine Why
     Some Instruments Sound Great?" Science News 3 Sept. 2002: 22-25. Print.

Note Form:
     1Lipkin, Richard. "To Build a Better Violin: Can Scientists Determine Why Some Instruments Sound Great?" Science News 3 Sept. 2002: 22-25.



Online Journals



Full Text Article from a Journal in an Online Database
Author, First. "Title of Article in Quotes with All Important Words Capitalized." Name
of the Periodical Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized Volume number. Issue number (if given)
(Year): pages (if not given, use n. pag.). Name of Database Italicized. Medium of Publication (Web). Date of access (Day, Month, Year).

Lagapa, Jason. "Parading the Undead: Camp, Horror and Reincarnation in the Poetry of
      Frank O'Hara and John Yau." Journal of Modern Literature 33.2 (2010): 92-113.
     Literature Resource Center. Web. 12 Feb 2010.

Note Form:
     1Lapaga, Jason. "Parading the Undead: Camp, Horror and Reincarnation in the Poetry of Frank O'Hara and John Yau," Journal of Modern Literature 33.2 (2010): 92-113.

Full Text Article in an Online Periodical
Note: Many online publications - even some online periodicals with print equivalents - do not have volume or issue numbers in their online formats; in this case, substitute day month year of publication.

Author, First. "Title of Article in Quotes with All Important Words Capitalized." Name of the Periodical Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized volume number.issue number (if given) (Year): Range or total number of pages (ex. 11 pp.) or paragraphs (ex. 46 pars.). Medium of Publication (Web). Day Month Year of Access. Include URL in angle brackets as the final element if the article is likely to be difficult to find without it.

Troop, Don. "The Tithe That Binds: a Reasoned Campaign Against Global Poverty" The Chronicle of Higher
     Education
. 33 pars. 13 Feb 2011. Web. Accessed 17 Feb 2011 <http://chronicle.com/article/The-Tithe-That-
     Binds-a/126344/#>


Entry from Online Database - Reprinted Information
Author, First, Last name (if given). "Title of Article in Quotes with All Important Words Capitalized."
Title of Source (if given) Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized. Day Month Year: pages (if given).
Rpt. (if given) in Name of Publication Italicized with All Important Words Capitalized. Vol. Number.
Ed. Name of Editor in First, Last Order. City and State of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages (if given). Source and Medium of Publication. Name of Database Italicized. Medium of Publication (Web). Day Month Year of access.

Benedict, Ruth, "The Past and the Future". The Nation 7 December 1946: 656-658.
     Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol. 97. Ed. Deborah A. Stanley.
     Detroit: Gale, 1997. 300-301. Literature Resource Center. Web. 25 October 2002.

"Isabel Allende." Contemporary Literary Criticism-Select. In Literature Resource Center.
     Web. 31 March 2005.

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Other Sources


Website
Person who created the site (if known) last name, first name. Name of the Site. Name of
the institution associated with the site; if not given, use n.p. Date of publication; if not given, use n.d. Medium of Publication (Web). Day Month Year of Access. Note: if your instructor or editor requires the Web address of the document, place the entire URL within angle brackets following the access date.


Guglielmo Marconi: The "Father of Radio." The Guglielmo Marconi Foundation, U.S.A.,
     n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2004.

OR

Guglielmo Marconi: The "Father of Radio." The Guglielmo Marconi Foundation, U.S.A.,
     n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2004. <http://www.marconiusa.org/marconi/>.



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Video
Title of the Video Italicized. Director and/or producer in standard word
order with abbreviations Dir. or Prod. Original release Date. Medium.
Name of Distributor, Date.

Gone with the Wind. Prod. David O. Selznick. 1939. Videocasette.
     Metro Goldwyn Mayer, 1998.

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For more examples of MLA style, we recommend the Purdue OWL MLA Guide