Loyola University Maryland

Department of History

Sample Notes

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The following provides examples of notes for various source materials. Also, view information about citing subsequent references.

One Author

     1 Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era (New York: Viking Press, 1970), 100.

Two Authors

     1 Seymour Martin Lipset and Reinhard Bendix, Social Mobility in Industrial America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959), 45-47.

Editor

     1 Robert W. Corrigan, ed., Arthur Miller: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1969), 25.

Author's Work in a Book Edited by Another Author

     1 Juliette Minces, "Women in Algeria," Women in the Muslim World. Ed., Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978), 161.

Article in a Scholarly Journal

     1 Stan A. Kaplowitz, "The Influence of Moral Consideration on the Perceived Consequences of an Action," Journal of Conflict Resolution 21 (September 1977): 475.

Article in a General Interest Magazine

     1 Patrick R. Oster, "Free Press vs. Fair Trial: A Classic Collision," U.S. News and World Report, 23 February 1976,44.

Untitled, Unsigned Article in an Old Newspaper

     1 The New York Journal and Newsboy (New York City), 1774, 6.

Signed Article in a More Recent Newspaper

     1 Craig Gordon, "Loyola Beats Georgetown, 55-54," Baltimore Sun, 12 February 1949, A, 1.

Multi-volume Work

     1 Robert R. Palmer, The Age of Democratic Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1964), 2: 101.

One Author Cited by Another

     1 Col. Charles Stuart, as cited in Piers Mackesy, The War for America 1775-1783 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), 125.

N. B. Mackesy cites Mrs. E. Stuart-Wortley, ed., A Prime Minister and His Son (London, 1925), 113, for this quotation, but you should not cite this source in your footnote (or endnote) unless you have actually consulted it yourself. If you found it in Mackesy, he should "get the credit."

Letter in Published Edition of Letters

     1 H.H. Asquith to Venetia Stanley, 18 Nov. 1914, in Michael and Eleanor Brock, eds., H.H. Asquith Letters to Venetia Stanley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 31.

Online Source Materials

     1 This section is based upon Andrew Hamack and Eugene Kleppinger's Online: A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources.

Web Site

To document a file available for viewing and downloading via the Web, provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Title of document, in quotation marks
  • Title of complete work (if relevant), in italics or underlined
  • Date of publication or last revision

Web Discussion Forum Posting

To document a posting to a Web discussion forum , provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Title of posting, in quotation marks
  • Date of posting
  • URL, in angle brackets
  • Date of access, in parentheses
  • Personal Site

     1 Joseph Pellegrino, "Homepage," 12 May 1999, <http://www.english.eku.edu/pellegrino/default.htm> (12 June 1999).

Professional Site

     1 Gail Mortimer, The William Faulkner Society Home Page, 16 September 1999, <http://www.utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/main faulkner.htm> (19 November 1997).

Online Book

     1 Peter J. Bryant, "The Age of Mammals," in Biodiversity and Conservation April 1999, <http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustaii^io65/index.html>(ll May 1999).

Article in an Electronic Journal (Ejournal)

     1 Tonya Browning, "Embedded Visuals: Student Design in Web Spaces," Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments 3, no. 1 (1997), <http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/2.1/features/browning/index.html> (21 October 1999).

Article in an Electronic Magazine (Ezine)

     1 Nathan Myhrvold, "Confessions of a Cybershaman," Slate, 12 June 1997, <http://www.slate.com/CriticalMass/97-06-12/CriticalMass.asp> (19 October 1997).

Online Newspaper Article

     1 Christopher Wren, "A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved," New York Times on the Web , 5 May 1999, <http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site+87604+0+wAAA+22a7Ebody7Eon7Emt.7Eeverest22> (13 May 1999).

Online Review

     1 Michael Parfit, review of The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest, by Anatoli Boukreev and G. Weston DeWalt, New York Times on the Web , 7 December 1997, http://search.nytimes.com/books/97/12/07/reviews/971207.07parfitt.html.

Online Government Publication

     1 George Bush, "Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees," Executive Order 12674, 12 April 1989, pt. 1, http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eol2674.html> (30 October 1997).

Email Message

To document an email message, provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Subject line, in quotation marks
  • Date of sending
  • Type of communication (personal email, distribution list, office communication)
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 Norman Franke, "SoundApp 2.0.2," 29 April 1996, personal email (3 May 1996).

Web Discussion Forum Posting

To document a posting to a Web discussion forum , provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Title of posting, in quotation marks
  • Date of posting
  • URL, in angle brackets
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 Daniel LaLiberte, "HyperNews Instructions," 23 May 1996, <http://union.ncsa.uiuc.edu/HyperNews/get/hypemews/instructions.html> (24 May 1996).

Listserv Message

To document a listserv message, provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Subject line, in quotation marks
  • Date of posting
  • Listserv address, in angle brackets
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 Victor Parente, "On Expectations of Class Participation," 27 May 1996,<philosed@sued.syr.edu> (29 May 1996).

Newsgroup Message

To document information posted in a newsgroup discussion, provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Subject line, in quotation marks
  • Date of posting
  • Name of newsgroup, in angle brackets
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 Robert Slade, "UNIX Made Easy," 26 March 1996, <alt.books.reviews> (31 March 1996).

Real-time Communication

To document a real-time communication, such as those posted in MOOs, MUDs, and IRCs, provide the following information:

  • Name of speaker(s) (if known), or name of site
  • Title of event (if appropriate), in quotation marks
  • Date of event
  • Type of communication (group discussion, personal interview), if not indicated elsewhere in entry
  • URL (in angle brackets) or other Internet address
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 LambdaMOO, "Seminar Discussion on Netiquette," 28 May 1996, <telnet://lambda.parc.xerox.edu:8888> (28 May 1996).

Telnet Site

To document a telnet site or a file available via telnet, provide the following information:

  • Name of author or agency
  • Title of document
  • Date of publication
  • Telnet address in angle brackets, with directions for accessing document
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 Aquatic Conservation Network, "About the Aquatic Conservation Network," National Capital Freenet, n.d., <telnet://freenet.carleton.ca> login as guest, go acn, press 1 (28 May 1999).

FTP Site

To document a file for downloading via file transfer protocol, provide the following information:

  • Name of author or file
  • Title of document
  • Size of document (if relevant)
  • Date of publication (if available)
  • Any print publication information, italicized or underlined where appropriate
  • Complete FTP address
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 everest2.gif [535K], 4 April 1993, ftp.ntua.gr/pub/images/views/sorted.by.type/Mountains/everest2.gif (3 June 1999).

Gopher site

To document information obtained by using the gopher search protocol, provide the following information:

  • Author's name
  • Title of document
  • Any print publication information, italicized or underlined where appropriate
  • Date of online publication
  • Gopher address, in angle brackets, with directions for accessing document
  • Date of access, in parentheses

     1 Jack Goody, "History and Anthropology: Convergence and Divergence," Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology 75, no. 2 (Spring 1993): n.p., <gopher://gopher.sinica.edu.tw/00/ioe/engbull/75b.txt> (2 June 1999).

Subsequent References to the Same Work

After the first citation of a source, historians prefer a short citation with the last name of the author followed by the page number. If more than one work by the same author is cited, list the author's last name, followed by a short version of the title and page number. This is different from the formats used in some other disciplines. For example:

     1 Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, Between Two Ages: America's Role in the Technetronic Era, (New York: Viking Press, 1970), 45.
     2 The New York Journal and Newsboy (New York City), 1774, 6.
     3 Brzezinski, 48.

This rule applies to both books and articles.

If note 2 above had been a reference to the same source, it would have been proper to use Ibid. Note that this term begins with a capital "I" and is underlined or italicized, and followed by a period. If a different page is referred to, it should be added after a comma. For example, notes 2 and 3 in this series would then appear:

     2 Ibid.
     3 Ibid, 48.

If you have occasion to make several references to a work with several authors or an unusually long title, you may wish to use a special abbreviation. You should indicate this in a note with the phrase, "hereafter referred to as..." For example:

     1 T. S. Ashton, The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978) as excerpted in Brian Tiemey, Donald Kagan, L. Pearce Williams, eds., Great Issues in Western Civilization, 3rd ed., (hereafter referred to as TKW), 2, 194.
     2 .... [another reference]
     3 Ashton, Industrial Revolution, in TKW, 198.

Although correct in the past, the forms loc. cit. and op. cit. are NOT to be used.